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Last updated on Tuesday 6th June 2023

The Fourth Heresy: Stopping the use of Force Abstract

Protons are small, their energy is concentrated into about 1/2000 the size of an electron. Protons also stick together in the nuclei of atoms, despite their electromagnetic repulsion. This behaviour is explained by a ‘Strong Nuclear Force’ and a ‘Color Force’. These forces are part of the ‘standard model’, which requires 36 quarks and 8 gluons, none of them yet found after more than 50 years of looking. (Post facto, it was decided that they cannot be found.)

A fourth spatial dimension is not forbidden and has specific math implications. Four-dimensional forces diminish as the cube of distance, so they only affect things at the sub-atomic scale, but they also allow an extra degree of freedom, making objects small enough energetically stable. If a fourth dimension exists, it would generate the effect described as the ‘strong nuclear force’.

If more dimensions exist, the primordial F-waves would have first collapsed into minute, unreactive, very heavy ball-waves before a remnant went on to form protons and electrons. This fits neatly with 70% of the matter in the universe being ‘dark matter’.

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