26 mins read

Last updated on Monday 14th August 2023

The Third Heresy: Waves that make matter

“Would it have been worth while, To have bitten off the matter with a smile, To have squeezed the universe into a ball, To roll it toward some overwhelming question,”

– T.S.Eliot “The Love-life of J Alfred Prufrock’

In the second Quantum Heresy, we mentioned in the fact that, ‘at energies, above 1.022MeV, F-waves turn into a paired electron and positron.’ This needs some inspection.

Here is a wave with no mass that turns into two things that have mass. We have an F-wave that moves at the speed of the Field, that turns into two things, a positron and an electron, that do not move (unless accelerated by something). From F-waves that are quite happy to move through the same space as any number of other F-waves, come ‘particles’ that act as solids, that refuse to share the same space with other[1]. From F-waves that have no charge and are not affected by electrical charge, come positrons and electrons, both electrically charged, charges that very much affect their behaviour. Finally, F-waves can have any energy-level and matching wavelength, but all electrons and all positrons are the same, they all have the same mass and charge – any excess energy the forming F-wave may have had beyond that needed to make the ‘particles’ goes into accelerating them.

A remarkable transformation has taken place: a single, neutral, massless, wave, moving at the speed of the Field, has become a pair of solid, stationary, fixed size, charged particles with mass. The process is reversible. If nothing stops them, the two particles will attract each other and rapidly turn back into F-waves. The transformation of F-waves to positrons and electrons is not rare or peculiar but happens all the time as very powerful F-waves known as ‘Cosmic Rays’ (of largely unknown origin) hit the earth’s atmosphere.

So, what is going on? The orthodox view is…there is no agreed orthodox view of the physics of this process. No agreed explanation or widely accepted picture of the process exists. Really, none; no theory. It is observed to happen, we know the energies involved and can calculate the effects with accuracy but we do not know how or why. The math of the process is known, quantities such as energy, overall charge, angular momentum etc. are conserved, but there is no description of the process more detailed than ‘at energies, above 1.022MeV, F-waves turn into a paired electron and positron’[2].

The Heretics have worked out a picture of how this transformation works, a picture that seems to explain the dramatic transformations. This picture, with no orthodox model to challenge it, can hardly be called a heresy, it is more like adding detail to a known process. Let’s start the description with two helpful analogies and an explanation of the crucial idea of the ‘ball-wave’.

We find it helps understanding to have two quite commonplace processes in mind – a thin stream of water from a tap that breaks into drips and a soap bubble that bursts, turning into a cluster of separate, tiny, spherical drops. It may help to look at slo-mo visual examples of these on YouTube as well as the pictures below:



Both these analogies show how a single, continuous line or surface breaks into small discrete balls of a standard size. At a certain point, breaking into the smaller 3-D forms becomes more stable than the longitudinal, 1-D, or sheet, 2-D, forms. The change of F-waves to ball-waves has strong similarities to these two every-day examples.

There are two closely related types of ball-wave. Both are reciprocating (in-and-out) spherical waves. One starts by collapsing inwards and then bounces back outwards before collapsing inwards again, repeating indefinitely. The other starts by expanding outwards before reversing inwards to the same end effect. There are non-spherical ball-waves as well, that we shall discuss later, but the spherical form is the most basic and dominant.

An analogy that may help is that of a stone dropped into water. First, the stone forms a cavity in the surface as it sinks below the water. Then a circular wave of water moves inwards to fill the cavity, overfills the cavity and forms a spout or jet just where the stone was dropped (sometimes throwing a water droplet up, but let’s keep it simple). The jet of water then collapses, sending a wave outward, but creating a new cavity at the centre. In water, the succession out out-and-back waves rapidly loses energy into ripples going outwards. This loss of energy does not to happen with fundamental ball-waves as they are formed. There is no friction and the need to fit a defined harmonic wavelength, explained below, prevents the loss of energy.

A ball-wave can also be seen as a three-dimensional version of the wave you can generate in a spring, such as a motor vehicle suspension spring. Hold it horizontally at its centre, pull it outwards and let go both ends. It twangs inwards, overshoots below its original size, carries on moving inwards until the compression defeats its momentum and then it springs out again. Once again it overshoots, repeats and so on. The ball-wave is the same thing, but in a sphere, the spherical wave growing larger, then falling back in, getting smaller until it reverses direction, springs out and so on. In the fundamental world, this can go on forever as there is often nowhere for the energy to go – unlike the spring, where the movement energy turns into heat.

There are no obvious examples of ball-waves in our everyday lives, possibly because we live in a world that is not only squidgy and full of friction but also has the asymmetric effect of Earth’s gravity. It is thought that some variable stars behave as ball-waves – a star repeatedly overheating, expanding outwards, cooling and falling back in to heat again and some theories suggest that ball-lightening is a ball-wave. But ball-waves pose no conceptual challenge, there is no reason why they cannot exist. More than that: because they are possible, they are required to exist under the ‘totalitarian rule’ that everything possible must exist. They are the only wave form, other than longitudinal waves that we know can exist in a 3-D environment (without being constrained by an existing surface or line)[1].

We started with the established experimental fact that a powerful enough F-wave transforms into electrons and positrons, like a bubble bursting into droplets or like a thin flow of water from a tap breaking into small, spherical drips. As we have seen, F-waves, such as light, are longitudinal wave of alternating high and low Field values, propagating outwards with a spherical wavefront. At a certain point, like a bubble bursting into drops, highly energetic F-waves break into ball-waves. One type of ball-wave forms in the F-waves area of high Field values (hFv), the other type of ball-wave forms in its area of low Field values (lFv). In a ball-wave, only wavelengths that fit the ball size exactly can exist or the waves will destroy each other by interference. That is, the diameter of the ball-wave must be such that, at the speed of the Field, a whole number of waves fits between the expansion and contraction reversal points. This explains why electrons and positrons always come with the same mass. The simplest assumption is that they have one wavelength from the centre turning point of the wave to the outside turning point. This idea is supported by that fact that there exist two types of ‘heavy electron’, the Muon and the Tau (and possibly more and heavier to be discovered). These are very similar to the electron but contain much more energy/mass because they have shorter wavelengths.  In the case of the muon, it seems likely that its wavelength is an octave higher that the electron ball-wave (half the length) between the turning points, in the case of the tau, a quarter of the wavelength of an electron.

So now we have two types of reciprocating ball-wave, centred on areas of hFv and lFv; what do they look like? First, they are stationary or moving only at speeds they are accelerated to. Their internal wave is still moving at the speed of the Field, but it does so in all directions, so the overall ball does not inherently move.

Secondly, ball-waves have an edge where their wave is at its furthest from the centre, before it changes direction and goes back inwards. This spherical ‘surface’ is made up of Field units that have whichever divergent field values it started with, so hFv or lFv. This surface means that two-ball waves of the same type cannot occupy the same space (if they are of opposing types and similar sizes they are attracted together and mutually turn back into F-waves). So they appear solid and can hit each other, sharing momentum between them – that is, they accelerate each other when they hit.

But, because the internal wave of the ball-wave is already moving at the speed of the Field, the ball cannot simply be made to move, or the internal wave would exceed the speed of the field. To compensate for the acceleration of the overall ball-wave, the internal wavelength must shorten in the direction of movement and shortening wavelengths takes energy. As a result, some of the energy of the coming together, the kinetic energy of the other ball-wave, is absorbed in shortening the ball-wave wavelength. Ball-waves have inertia: resistance to movement and the absorption of kinetic energy[2].

And we can go further. Suppose the ball wave is hit by an energetic F-wave. The two wavelengths will tend to equalise, the ball-wave getting shorter in the direction away from the side it was hit. This is observed and called the ‘Compton Effect’. We discussed above how the shortening of the ball-wave wavelength absorbs the energy that we call inertia. But we can go further. In order for the ball-wave to stay moving at the speed of the field in the direction it has now got a shorter wavelength, the whole ball wave must move in that direction by exactly as much as the wavelength has been reduced. We call this effect the transfer of momentum and it explains how waves without mass have momentum. But more than that: we now have a concept of distance and speed and energy separate from the speed of the field and wavelength. Not only has the material universe appeared but the stage on which it acts has been formed.

The inertial mass – resistance to acceleration – is in proportion to the wavelength of the ball-wave: the shorter the wavelength, the more energy it takes to compress in the direction of movement. This is why protons, smaller and with a shorter wavelength, are more massive than electrons.

So, the conversion of longitudinal F-waves to ball-waves automatically standardises their sizes, makes them solid and gives them inertia. The last two combined we describe as mass.

The spherical ‘edge’ of the ball wave has either an hFv or lFv, so it attracts clusters of bubblets of the opposite Field values from the vacuum and repels bubblets of the same field values. These form a cloud of lFv or hFv bubblets around the ball-wave. This cloud attracts ball-waves of the opposite type and repels ball-waves of the same type. The ‘attraction’ is caused by the two orderly clouds of bubblets of opposing values neutralising each other, reducing the ‘pressure’ caused by the vacuum ‘choppiness’ on the other side of the ball-waves, so the pressure of the choppiness on the other side of the ball-wave pushes the ball-waves together. This is like the Casimir effect, where two plates held at a distance where they prevent much of the ‘choppiness’ pushes the plates towards each other. Repulsion arises from the opposite effect when two clouds of the same type of bubblets come together. Note that there is no ‘action at a distance’, the electromagnetic effect arises from the direct physical interaction of the bubblets.

We describe this as the electromagnetic force. Static electricity when the ball-wave is not moving and, forming an ordered ‘wake’ of bubblets when the ball-waves move, generating attractive and repulsive effects that we call a magnetic field[3].

I hope you can see why the Heretics like this picture of F-wave pair formation? Mass seems to fall out naturally[4], as does the electromagnetic force and fixed size. We can go further. A ball-wave does not emit ripples like a stone in a pond because it is at a specific harmonic and cannot lose the energy, so it is stable. But if a ball-wave such as an electron, meets an F-wave with the right harmonic, it can resonate with it and absorb the F-wave energy as an overtone, expanding the ball slightly[5]. Often, though, this larger wavelength is unstable, and the ball-wave will throw off a spherical ripple (like the stone in the water) that expands outwards: it has absorbed and emitted light.

This picture of particles seems compatible with the existing math, it seems to fit experimental result, it finds a way to explain the ‘particle’ aspects of the electron co-exiting with the wave aspects without getting mystical and it is, compared to orthodox mysticism, simple to understand.

The formation of ball-waves is fully reversable in lower energy situations. When an electron and positron meet, their divergent Field-values cancel out and there is nothing to ‘bring the ball-wave back’, so their joint wavefront continue to expand outwards as a typical F-wave. The amount of ‘energy’ in that F-wave – the wavelength of the F-wave produced – is in proportion to the wavelength of the original ball-waves. This means that there is always a link between inertial mass, resistance to movement and the energy ‘trapped’ in ball-waves. A calculation of this produces the result that e=mc2.

Because it is around 1,000 times smaller, the proton ball-wave, unlike a positron, is unable to react with an electron[6]. We will cover this in much more detail later. The little, heavy, hard proton and neutron ball-waves can penetrate the surface of the much larger and ‘softer’ electron ball-wave. In atoms, the nucleus, made up of protons and neutrons, sits in the centre of the electrons. In hydrogen and helium, the nucleus is surrounded by the spherical ball-wave of the electron(s) but, once the first two electrons have surrounded the nucleus, the next sets of electron ball-waves in larger atoms form complex shapes of round the nucleus, often in ‘figure of eight’ patterns – but still with the nucleus at the centre. (These patterns appear to be dictated by harmonic rules.) While electrons are big and soft enough for the much smaller and very hard protons and neutrons to penetrate, they are good and solid when it comes to bouncing off atoms[7].

The presence of a proton at the centre of an electron ball-wave in a hydrogen atom means that the force attracting the electron’s ball-wave inwards is reduced. This means that the energy of the ball-wave is spread over a larger volume, which makes the atom more stable than the two particles are separately. This applies in principle but with more complex details to all elements, giving a different ball-wave wavelengths to electrons in each type of atom. This is the reason why the harmonics of F-wave absorption and emission vary from element to element, giving us a characteristic absorption and emission spectra for each.

In the presence of nearby positive charges, electrons form semi-stable pairs called ‘Cooper pairs’, despite their mutual repulsion. These may be stable because the two ball-waves in a Cooper pair together form a single standing wave ball-wave. Standing waves require significantly less energy than the two waves have separately, so might be stable despite the ‘electromagnetic’ repulsion. It seems probable that the net zero movement of the standing wave of a Cooper pair is what makes them capable of ‘superconducting’, moving freely without energy loss. (It is a classic example of the power of the math that the existence and superconducting effect of Cooper pairs was predicted in detail with little picture of how they physically worked.)

Our description of the link between F-waves and electrons and positrons has come a long way and links to a lot of known facts. But, remember, this is not a heresy: there is no alternative, orthodox physical model for how solid, massive, matter with an electromagnetic force is formed in consistent-size packages from F-waves. There is no accepted alternative suggestion for how the physical processes we observe should be pictured, just the mathematical calculation of their effects. The Heretics picture seems to fit fully into Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory requiring no changes – but maybe suggesting some new ideas for research?

Before we move on to more speculative heresies, we should perhaps go back to look again at the way that the formation of ball waves from F-waves results in mass and electrical charge. Electromagnetism is the effect of bubblets of lFv and hFv organising themselves around ball-waves. Both types of ball-waves, electron and positron, have a ‘surface’ where the expanding ball-wave of lFv or hFv, stops, turns around and collapses back in – they do this at the speed of the Field so very fast indeed over the tiny distances involved. The Field is full of bubblets, small 3-D regions which have lower or higher Field values than the average. In the orthodox picture these bubblets are called ‘virtual particles’ and do the same job, transferring force, that we require bubblets to do here, using the same math. The heretics feel that the picture of bubblets in the field is much more compelling than ‘particles’ – what are they? – that materialise and dematerialise for reasons and in ways unexplained. The Heretics bubblets can be easily understood by analogy to a choppy sea or pool, where wavelets keep the surface of the water fluctuating above or below its minimum energy level. We can measure the effect of bubblets in what we call ‘vacuum fluctuations’. Normally bubblets have no macroscopic effect, they are small and cancel each other out on a large scale, just as the wavelets of a choppy sea make little difference to the flat appearance of the water surface viewed from a distance. But, in the presence of a ball-wave, the bubblets become organised and start to exert an effect. If a ball-wave has an lFv ‘surface’, hFv bubblets will be attracted and lFv bubblets repelled, leading to an area of average hFv that gets less the further from the ball wave you get. The opposite will happen around hFv ball-waves.

There is a close analogy to this in what happens to chemical ions in solution. Salt, sodium chloride, splits in water into sodium plus and chlorine minus ions, a process made possible by the ‘polarisation’ of water molecules. Water molecules have two distinct sides, one side with a small positive charge the other side with a small negative charge. When salt is added to the water, the water molecules cluster around each type of ion with their negative side surrounding the positive sodium ion and the positive side surrounding the negative chlorine ion. This helps spread the overall charge through the solution (an illustration here would be useful).

As a result of the clustering of bubblets, a force, attractive or repulsive, will be felt at some distance from the ball-wave – but by direct physical contact with the sorted bubblets, we have no ‘Action at a Distance’ here. The effect of this is what we describe as the electrostatic force and is the origin of the Fine Structure Constant and its many practical applications. When the ball-wave moves through the field, it will leave behind a wake, just like a ship moving through the sea (but in 3-D). These wakes take energy from the moving ball-wave as from the ship (drag) but, generate a force to the side that we call magnetism or, for the ship, the wash.

Neither mass nor electromagnetic effects require any special force or effects. They are the direct consequence of the interaction of ball-waves and the Field.

The electron ball-wave size is somewhere around 10-16m, which means the electron ball-wave oscillates at the speed of the Field in around 10-25 seconds. The energy involved in an F-wave with a wavelength this short is such that relatively few such ball-waves are being formed today apart from those formed by cosmic rays or in accelerators. However, in the past, there was a time when the universe was filled with much higher energy and ball-wave formation happened universally, the process that formed all the matter we see today.

The origin of the universe in the so-called Big Bang retains many mysteries but it seems likely that, shortly after the start, there was nothing except energy in the form of extremely powerful F-waves. As they expanded out against gravity[8], they got less energetic with a gradually longer wavelength. At some point they hit a harmonic wavelength where they would have been able to turn into ball-waves, like a stream of water turning into drips. These would not have been everyday negative electrons and positive protons but the much more energetic, ‘heavy electron’, the tau ball-wave and its positive equivalent, the anti-tau.  There may be even more energetic forms of ‘heavy electron’ that we have yet to discover that came before the tau[9].

As the environment gets less energetic, these heavy electrons are observed to decay down the scale in complex ways from tau to muon (another heavy electron but not as heavy as the tau) to electron. This led to the creation of all the electrons we see. It seems that the same decay path does not apply to the opposite types of ball-wave, the anti-tau and anti-muon. With these, the decay process ended at protons, minute ball-waves around 1000 times as heavy as electrons, not with positrons, which are the same as electrons, except for their positive charge.

There are no orthodox ideas for this divergence between softer, lighter, negative electrons, about a thousand times the size and one thousandth of the weight of smaller, harder, heavier positive protons. The difference in size between electrons and protons is the reason why, despite their opposite charges – that is, the opposing Field values at their centre – they do not react together. This is what the equal-sized electrons and positrons do if they meet, turning back into F-waves. The difference between the two particles, electron and proton, and their resultant inability to react with each other and turn back into F-waves is the reason why all the matter in the universe exists.

The simplest idea is that the anti-tau particle decays differently to the tau. The anti-tau particle has never been observed, so it is quite possible. But that hardly answers the question, just moves it on to ‘why do the two decay paths differ so?’. It just says ‘it happens’, still for an unknown reason.

Another idea is that the two different types of ball-waves, the ones that turn into positive and the ones that become negative particles, are also different sizes. Up to now we have assumed that the ball-waves formed from the lFv and those formed from the hFv parts of the F-waves behave identically. This assumption was made because the ‘low’ in lFv and the ‘high’ in hFv are purely labels for divergences from the average Field value, not ‘low’ or ‘high’ in anything we know of. But we do know that, on a linear scale, they are opposites, so for them to have an opposite effect to each other sometimes is likely. Ball-waves are derived from F-waves, longitudinal waves of alternating lower and higher Field values, that, when it hits the right wavelength, forms small 3-D balls, replacing the 2-D wavefront surface, like a bubble bursting. We suggest that one type of ball-wave which, for convenience we will call the negative ball-wave, starts from the F-wave by expanding, the other type by contracting (before they both bounce back to their starting size). This is what we would expect if they came from a wave of higher and lower air pressure, for example. This means that the positive and negative ball-waves would have different sizes. Both start the same size, but one contracts and the other expands. For the larger ball-wave, the inner point of bounce-back would be at the same radius from the centre as the other ball-wave’s outside point of bounce-back, for the small ball-wave the inner point of bounce-back could be very small indeed.

We need to introduce the ‘Strong Nuclear Force’ (SNF) effect, a powerful effect but only at very small sizes. The effect of the SNF is to hold the nuclei of atoms together, despite the repulsion between the positive charge of all the protons. Its effect is around 100 times stronger than the electromagnetic force but it only operates at very short distances, distances much smaller than the electron’s size. We would expect this effect to have a different impact on the two different sizes of ball-wave. So the smaller ball-wave, the one that initially collapses inwards rather than expanding outwards, would be trapped by the SNF. Hence, the decay products of the anti-Tau remain as protons, held to a small size by the SNF, while the decay products of the Tau, the larger ball-wave, is forced to expand enough to escape the SNF effect and so become the much larger electron.

We will have much to say about the ‘Strong Nuclear Force’ effect later, but the general agreement is that the primordial F-waves formed the ball-waves of protons, neutrons and electrons that make up all the matter in our universe and this is the heretics picture of the process. We see from the Compton effect that any excess energy from these primordial F-waves, any more than the exact amount of energy needed to form the ball-waves, goes into accelerating the ball-waves in the direction away from the source of the F-waves as they are formed. In this case, it accelerates all the newly formed ball-waves in a sphere away from the F-waves origin in the big bang. This is what makes the universe expand[10], leaving the very tiny remnant of the original F-waves that we see today as the Cosmic Background Radiation.

Somewhere in this mix neutrons also developed. The neutron is a problem. The reason why protons and electrons do not combine and turn into F-waves is clear: to do so would require that they were somewhat the same size and they are radically different sizes. But the neutron gives the impression of being a proton combined with compressed electron to get down to much the same size as the proton alone. Indeed, a neutron, left on its own, will fall apart into a proton and an electron after about 15 minutes. So why do their lFv and hFv elements not ‘react’ as a full-sized electron and positron do? We do not know. It appears that the negative ‘electron’ part of the neutron is doughnut shaped, with a hollow centre, so there may not be direct contact. In tests, the negative ‘electron part’ seems to surround the positive ‘proton’ part, making the neutron slightly negative to particles close by and so helping stick nuclei together.

The picture of F-waves turning into pairs of ball-waves explains a lot but, as we see, by no means everything about protons, electrons and neutrons. It automatically explains why ball-waves do not move at the speed of the Field. It makes them ‘solid’, by resisting other ball-waves occupying the same space. The ball-wave model gives particles inertia, because some kinetic energy must be used to shorten the internal wavelength to allow them to move. This explains where inertial mass comes from and why it is always linked to the energy of the particle because particle energy, too, is determined by the ball-wave wavelength. As a result, particle energy is always equal to its (inertial) mass, times a constant. It explains the appearance of attraction/repulsion, apparently at a distance, an effect we call the electromagnetic force – and does so without the need for forces (magically) affecting things at a distance. The ‘force’ is a direct proximate effect of the ball-waves on the bubblets in the Field having a proximate effect on other bubblets and ball-waves. It explains how electrons and other ball-waves can absorb and emit F-waves, but, as they only do so at certain harmonic levels, why they absorb and emit energy discontinuously – the original ‘quanta’[11]. Overall, the ball-wave seems a fruitful picture of the mechanisms behind the math of quantum mechanics. It can be extended further to suggest how the matter in the universe came about and where it got the momentum that makes the universe expand. This picture needs no more assumptions than the existence of the Field, with its ability to have varying values and the two, logically required, rules we started with – the No Special Place and the Totalitarian rules.

On to less well-known territory. All fundamental particles have a property called ‘spin’ which we have more-or-less ignored so far. Orthodox systems have a lot of issues with spin, not least that it comes in fixed amounts, spin 1, 2, 3, 4, for F-waves or spin ½, 1½, etc. for ball-waves. Spin ½ means that the object must spin 720 degrees to return to the same position. Spin also comes in opposed types called ‘up’ or ‘down’. It has basic importance in many sub-atomic interactions, mostly that where there is a particle with spin up, it needs to be matched with a spin down particle to interact. The mathematics handles all this with simplicity but there is no widely held orthodox explanation for these characteristics.

The Heretics have not got a simple way to integrate spin in their picture. There are some answers, but it is very much a work in progress and views are sought. We start from the basis that spin is what it appears to be: it is spin, rotation. All the phenomena of the heretics’ world are either F-waves or ball-waves, so the spin must be in sync. with the waves. Intermediate levels of spin would not conserve angular momentum. Unless the outward pulse of a ball-wave, where angular momentum is greatest, peaks at the same point on each pulse of the ball-wave, you will get a complete tangle of forces. So, the rate of spin is linked to the rate of pulsing. This explains why fundamental spin comes in fixed units and is not smoothly changeable.

Another problem with spin caused by the orthodox view of particles also vanishes with ball-waves. The spin of ball-waves generates a ‘magnetic moment’, a vectored magnetic force caused by dragging the surrounding bubblets around. In orthodox pictures of ‘solid’ particles, the force of this magnetic moment suggests that the surface of the particle is going faster than the speed of the Field. But ball-waves ‘surface’ is made of shrinking and expanding spherical waves, moving at the speed of the Field and only affects other ball-waves as though it were solid. The ‘surface’ does not exist at the level of individual parts of the Field.

The reason why spin on ball-waves comes in units of ½ has a surprising history. It is a considerable oddity that Richard Feynman explained and proved spin one half without ever realising it. The story is in his book “Surely You Are Joking, Mr Feynman”. In essence, he saw some oafs in the Cornell canteen throwing up and spinning the dinner plates and observed that the college badge on the edge of the platers was going round at half the speed of the plates’ wobble. Intrigued by this he played with it until he had proved mathematically why this happens. Now you can consider the wobble of the plate as a wave – think about a chain of wobbling plates attached by a flexible string and you can see that they are all part of a wave (and, no, they could not spin under these circumstances, but hang on in there with us). So, Feynman proved that spin on a wave must have spin ½, it must go round twice to return to the same position – to put the ball-wave in the same place. After spinning 360 degrees, the ball-wave is at the opposite pulse, ‘in’ where it had been ‘out’, so it is not the same until it has spun around again.

It is simple spin (in jumps of 360 degrees to return to the same point) for F-waves because the spin is in synch with the wave – it has to be or the wave would interfere with itself. However, it is also a requirement of conservation of angular momentum that the spin must be at right angles to the direction of the waves propagation.

All that said, it is very difficult to picture how an F-wave with a spherical wave front with a radius in kilometres or light-years, can have spin in any conventional sense. The Heretics acknowledge this but feel that it is the same as the fact that such a wave can collapse at one point and one time when it harmonises with an electron. We found a visual, everyday analogy for this in the fish tank experiment and the fact that we lack the same type of picture for spin is a problem of analogies, not science itself? More work required.

Spin also comes in two opposed ways, known as ‘up’ and ‘down’, which is related to the idea that the axis of spin can only be in the direction of motion. But the ‘direction of motion’ of an expanding wavefront sphere is also a problem that we have not resolved. In addition, it seems as though the spins ‘up’ and ‘down’ are not simple opposites but have a more complex relationship that requires other elements. The Heretics have barely begun working on this.

So, for the Heretics picture of fundamental waves and particles, spin is still full of riddles, although fewer than traditional pictures as the quantisation of spin and spin ½ come out as natural consequences of the Heretics picture. All thoughts on how we can move on this are grateful received.

Several constructs of the orthodoxy are not required in the heretical picture. We need just the one ‘force’ that is known as the ‘electromagnetic force’ and it comes from the nature of the Field.  The ‘Strong and Weak Nuclear Forces’ will be discussed in the Fourth Heresy, but we do not need the Higgs field (which the Heretics have never understood anyway), the famous particle discovered in 2012 we believe to be of another type, possibly the next in the series electron, muon, tau….. Conceptually economical at any rate.

[1] The word ‘particle’ is put in quotes because its meaning is very elusive. It brings to mind a small, solid sphere, a kind of mini-pea, which electrons and positrons are not. It is used here for lack of a better term until we move forward a few more paragraphs.

[2] Someone will point out that this only happens in the presence of a nearby particle able to take the F-wave momentum. This is the case but makes no difference to the description that follows.

[3] Longitudinal waves are the only form of 3-D wave that moves unconstrained and ball-waves the only form of 3-D reciprocating wave. Both do have variants – you can have standing F-waves and ‘clover-leaf’ ball-waves in atoms, for example, but the simplest forms are linear with a spherical wavefront (F-waves) and spherical ball-waves.

[4] This fits elegantly into Special Relativity – the physical form of the Lorentz contraction, as well as e=mc–  as we will see later.

[5] The wake produced is a series of hFv/lFv waves. It is shaped differently to a wake in water waves because the waves move at constant speed whatever their wavelength and amplitude while different water waves move at different speeds, the interaction of which creates the ‘feathered’ look we are familiar with.

[6] What of the Higgs field that is supposed in the orthodox picture to give mass? Well, we don’t need it in the Heretic’s model. It has also been demoted in the orthodox model – now it accounts for only 1-3% of mass, the rest of the orthodox mass coming from the ‘binding energy’. The evidence for the Higgs mechanism is the celebrated particle found in 2012 with an energy of 125.25GeV, said to fit the specification of a Higgs boson. Some say that it was the next level of ‘heavy electron’ was detected, the one above the Muon, at 105.66 MeV, and the Tau at 1776.86MeV (often held not to exist because a mystic ‘rule of 3’ prevents it). Or something else.

[7] This process absorbs kinetic energy but not momentum as the spherical F-wave’s zero total momentum is added to the spherical electrons zero momentum. At higher energies another reaction takes place where of momentum is transferred – the Compton Effect and an additional reaction is required to conserve overall momentum.

[8]For the electron to react requires too much compression. It also appears, see below, that the electron actually forms a kind of hollow-centred donut shape, so that, even if they are compressed together, they initially form a neutron, with the tiny, hard proton sitting in the middle of the large, soft electron rather than turning into F-waves. The proton may also be surrounded by bubblets of the opposite value, keeping it separate.

[9] The traditional descriptions of atoms describes them as a nucleus surrounded by areas of’ electron probability’, the electron being treated as a particle of zero size with its location indeterminate. Fortunately, the math is identical – you may see the resemblance to our earlier three descriptions of sound waves..

[10] Full disclosure: the Heretics do not have a good explanation for the source of this gravity – it doesn’t fit with gravity as a product of matter in an era before matter existed.

[11] There are deep heretics who think that the celebrated particle found in 2012 with an energy of 125.25GeV is the next level of ‘heavy electron’, above the Tau, 1776.86MeV, and the Muon, 105.66 MeV.

[12] There seems to be no agreed orthodox physical explanation for why the matter of the universe is (overall) moving apart. The math suggests that a non-expanding or shrinking universe is unstable but fails to provide a mechanism for accelerating matter. Sometimes the movement of matter outwards is said to be caused by space itself expanding. The Heretics regard this as pure mysticism.  Sometimes it is simply assumed that the ‘Big Bang’ would, by analogy with an earth-based explosion, expel material in all directions, at other times people say that an ‘energy pressure’ – an expansion related to entropy/No Special Place – would do it.

[13] It is a surprise that Max Planck did not suggest this possibility as he was a devoted musician who nearly took music rather than science. But perhaps he felt that he had speculated enough anyway.

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